Electron beam welding (EBW) is a specialist metal joining process specifically used for producing high-quality joints without causing any major distortion. In this process, a beam of high energy electrons is directed towards the joint that needs to be fused or welded.
These high energy electrons are produced by a filament or a cathode. Since heating is highly localized, most of the assembly continues to remain stable and cold, resulting in a narrow weld with a small heat affected zone (HAZ).
During the melting of the parent metal, there is no need for a filler metal. Since this is a line of sight approach, it is not possible to weld around corners or re-entrant.
Given that the heat input is highly localized, components that have been heat treated can be joined together. This presents a low-cost method for creating gear shafts, with a case hardened gear on a tempered and hardened shaft.
The Electron Beam Welding technique offers the following benefits:
• High Welding Speed.
• Minimal Distortion.
• Low heat input for joined parts.
• Narrow and small HAZ and Melt Zone (MZ).
• Deep weld penetration from 0.05 to 13mm in a single pass.
• Vacuum process results in clean, reproducible environment.
• All metals can be welded, even those with high thermal conductivities.
• Metals can be welded, even those with high thermal conductivities.
• Metals can be welded with dissimilar melting points.
• Natural welding process for niobium, titanium, zirconium and other materials requiring oxygen.
• Low-cost welding process for large-scale production in automatic mode.
• Machine process ensured for consistency and reproducibility of the operating conditions.
• Components can often be utilised in the as welded condition without the need for sub-machining.
As the Electron Beam Welding process takes place in the vacuum, the welds are clean and free of oxides and nitrides. Narrow, deeper penetration from .001 to 2 inches, with high depth to width ration eliminates multiple pass welds completely.
Narrow/Deep – High depth to width ratio eliminates multiple pass welds. Penetration from 001” to ½”.
Low Heat – Minimises shrinkage and distortion and allows welds in close proximity to heat sensitive components.
Strength – Welds up to 95% of the strength of the base material.
Versatility – Precise control and repeatability.
High Purity – Vacuum environment eliminates impurities such as oxides and nitrides.
Unique – Permits welding of refractory and dissimilar metals not weld able with conventional welding process.
Electron Beam Welding is used in the following applications:
• Power generation
• Vacuum systems
• Aerospace – sensors. jet engine components, transmission components, parts of structures
• Space – sensors, titanium tanks
• Automotive – gears, transmission part, parts of turbocharger
• Electrical/electronic industries – parts in copper material
• Nuclear – instrumentations, valves, fuel housing, parts of structure
• Research centers – superconductivity material components, copper parts
• All metals even with high thermal conductivity – steel and stainless steel, copper and alloys, titanium and alloys, nickel alloys, aluminum and alloys, refractory metals, Mo, Zr, Ta, W, Nb, Hf, and so on
• Welding of metals with dissimilar melting points – steel to nickel alloys, copper to nickel alloys, copper to steel, tantalum to tungsten